Stopping Boko Haram by Curtailing Illicit Finance

Global Financial Integrity
Boko Haram developed from social unrest, poverty, and a strong disillusionment with the corruption of the Nigerian government. Today, the same factors make Boko Haram lethal.
Nigeria’s rampant corruption has left the nation unequipped to deal with security concerns, especially along porous borders through which Boko Haram receives immense support. A look at one of their videos reveals an immense amount of weaponry that is not only costly but very difficult to obtain.

Boko Haram is capitalizing on the destitute areas in the north of Nigeria to extract money from civilians, as well as financial opacity to receive funding from international criminal networks–including a $3M donation to Nigerian Islamist networks from Osama Bin Laden–and channel it towards arms acquisition from abroad: one of many examples of the inextricable link between financial concerns and national security.

Like many insurgencies, Boko Haram is thriving in a country with poor infrastructure and opaque financial institutions. Its main areas of operation, Borno, Yobe, Kano, and nearby northeastern states, are ranked as the poorest areas in Nigeria. Funding opportunities for Boko Haram, such as kidnapping for ransom, smuggling, and bank robberies arise because of poor security infrastructure and have provided local means for funding and recruitment.

But that is only half the story. High-level corruption and financial opacity breeds larger-scale funding and support opportunities, contributing to illicit financial flows facilitated by banks and corrupt individuals. Though Al Qaeda in the Magreb (AQIM) has reportedly provided Boko Haram with substantial funds and arms, other sympathizers have also chipped in. Apprehended Boko Haram members have admitted to using otherwise legitimate business profits to support Boko Haram and selling items abroad at inflated prices, and arms smuggling from other conflict areas like Libya is rampant. Fictitious real estate companies and charities have also been implicated in money laundering operations to send illicit funds throughout West Africa.

Not only is the financial system broken, but many government officials would prefer to keep it that way. Minimal oversight means “security votes,” unmonitored discretionary funds for government officials, are increasingly abused, and bank executives are using profits to finance their own subsidiaries instead of providing local, long-terms loans. This not only takes away critical capital from infrastructure and security projects, it also shelters the nation’s elite from the repercussions of devastating economic, social, and political realities.
An overwhelming level of instability cripples Nigeria, draining capital from local, regional and national sources and making it more difficult to combat groups like Boko Haram. The 2013 GFI IFF report calculated that $142 billion dollars left the Nigerian economy between 2002 and 2011. No African country loses more:

Unless issues of bad governance and systemic corruption are addressed vigorously and transparently, all other measures [to deal with Boko Haram] will be nothing but stop-gaps.

Nigeria’s faulty financial system drains money from where it is needed and lets in funds to those it should not. It will take a leader with keen eye for high-level corruption and a progressive outlook on the nation’s future to bring the nexus of these issues to light and tackle Boko Haram’s root causes.
Global Financial Integrity

16 thoughts on “Stopping Boko Haram by Curtailing Illicit Finance

  1. Affiliate Editor, Sam Egburonu, simply again from
    a tour of South- East states within the final two weeks, reviews
    that preparations are ongoing in the main cities and native
    communities for the Might 30, Biafra 50th anniversary, however threats and
    warnings by safety brokers in opposition to such celebrations.

    THREE youths, carrying yellow T-shirts and black beret walked leisurely cross the safety checkpoint simply on the foot
    of the Niger Bridge and made in the direction of the towering statue of the late Dim Chukwuemeka
    Odumegwu Ojukwu, the Ikemba Nnewi. Time was 9.48am. As
    they approached the Biafran leader’s statue and paused
    momentarily, maybe to savour the creative or historic particulars of
    the grand statue, the armed safety officials grew to become overtly alert, watching carefully, and seemingly clutching their guns extra tightly, thus forcing the youths to
    proceed hastily in the direction of the market, away from Ikemba and
    the armed males: Thursday, Might 18, 2017.

    There was no signal of battle that day, however the Nation noticed that like these armed safety operatives on the foot of Niger Bridge in Onitsha,
    Anambra State, there’s bottled up tension amongst residents of South-East cities and villages over the uncertainties surrounding the alleged willpower of
    authorities safety companies to frustrate the deliberate 50th Anniversary of the declaration of the Republic of Biafra and the commemoration of the fallen heroes and heroines
    of the but-to-be realised republic.

    Because the agitators put together for the annual
    Biafra remembrance, which by the way is the golden anniversary, the federal authorities and a few organised nationality teams had overtly expressed unwillingness to permit the realisation of the Biafran dream.

    Elder Nigerian statesmen and prime political leaders have suggested agitators to rethink their resolve, arguing
    that division will not be the precise method to attain the desires of a greater life for the individuals
    of the jap half. Amongst the leaders that had provided such an recommendation in the course of the week included former President Olusegun Obasanjo, who performed a outstanding position within the Nigerian-Biafran civil struggle, and the Appearing President Yemi Osinbajo.
    The 2 leaders spoke in an occasion on the 50th Anniversary of the
    declaration of Biafra, by the Navy Governor of the East, Col.
    Odumegwu Ojukwu.

    Obasanjo had known as on the federal authorities to negotiate with these agitating for the creation of a Biafran Republic.

    Evaluating the Nigeria-Biafra saga to a relationship between a husband and his
    spouse, demanding for a divorce, Obasanjo stated,
    “It is sort of a love affair. If in a home with a husband and a spouse and the spouse says ‘I am fed up, I’m going’ and day by day, that’s the track you hear, you’ll quickly get fed up your self because the husband and you’ll say, ‘if you need to go, you may go’.

    Higher collectively

    “But if there’s any misunderstanding and also you resolve it, and you
    discover an answer, you’ll dwell collectively
    nearly without end. I consider there isn’t any substitute for holding Nigeria and massaging it as you therapeutic massage love.

    There isn’t any various and I’ll say we must always even attraction.

    “If anyone says he needs to go, it’s not that you’ll say ‘you can go if you wish to go’. Don’t go! There may be sufficient cake for every one among us. If what you might be asking for is extra of the cake, then ask for it in a approach that’s nice, not in a manner that can make others really feel you aren’t entitled to what you might be asking for.”

    Osinbajo spoke in the identical vein on the occasion whereas
    delivering his speech. Describing the civil warfare as a stain on the historical past of
    Nigeria, Prof. Osinbajo stated, “The most profitable nations of the world are those that don’t fall into the lure of separation however who by means of thick and skinny forge unity in variety. Nigeria is not any totally different. We’re not two or three however extra of 300 ethnic teams between the identical geographical areas, offered with a fantastic alternative to mix all of our strengths right into a nation that is really greater than the sum of its elements.”

    He added, “I totally consider that Nigerians ought to train, to the fullest extent, the best to debate and debate the phrases of our existence. Debates and disagreements are elementary features of democracy.”

    Reacting, the President of Igbo socio-cultural group, Ohanaeze Ndigbo, Chief Nnia
    Nwodo, blamed the agitation on what he described as jaundiced political system,
    which he stated was hindering correct growth. He contended that with fiscal autonomy, each state would develop quicker.

    The Nation investigation nonetheless reveals that
    the agitators are usually not but satisfied that it
    can be within the curiosity of the individuals from the a part of
    the nation to cease the agitation. They’re due
    to this fact resolved to go on with the agitation however
    alleged resolve of safety forces to deal with agitators.
    So, there’s tension within the communities east of River Niger and different Igbo talking states within the

    As quickly as he got here out of detention via a courtroom
    bail, the chief of the Indigenous Folks of Biafra (IPOB), Nnamdi
    Kanu, informed critics of the Biafra agitation to have a rethink, saying the Biafran Republic “is a spot the place issues will work.”
    Talking in Umuahia, Abia State, Kanu stated nothing will make him to again out of the agitation till his individuals are free, including that, “many folks have misconceptions in regards to the agitation.”

    To affirm its willpower to proceed with the agitation after
    the discharge of its chief by what critics referred to as
    strict bail circumstances which can be designed to frustrate future agitations, IPOB issued a sit-at-residence order for all “Biafrans” on Could 30 to observe the 50th anniversary of the declaration of Biafra and to honour
    the heroes and heroines who died within the 50 years
    quest for Biafra. The federal government, on its half, had not solely
    expressed disapproval of the deliberate remembrance however has additionally, in response to professional- Biafran components, tightened safety within the South-East states and
    different communities the place the agitation is in style.
    However our investigation this week exhibits that the Biafran agitators should
    not deterred by this association as they’ve gone forward to organize for the

    IPOB has stated there is no such thing as a going again on the sit-at-residence order, in an announcement by the Media and Publicity Secretary of the motion, Mr.
    Emma Highly effective, he suggested “Biafrans”
    to remain at residence, alleging there have been plots to kill or maim protesters that day.
    Quoting IPOB intelligence unit, Highly effective stated, “There are collection of conferences happening between safety companies and saboteurs in our midst who want to sabotage the Remembrance Day celebration of our fallen heroes and heroines scheduled to carry on Could 30. However, we’re calling on each Biafran to remain at residence on that day to keep away from safety operatives from killing innocent members.

    IPOB is just not alone on this. The older professional-Biafran organisation, the Motion for the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) has additionally given its members directives to rejoice the golden anniversary no matter any menace or intimidation. Chief of MASSOB, Uchenna Madu, stated in a press release on Thursday in Awka, Anambra State, that: “We won’t ever hand over on this Biafran self-dedication battle till justice is assured and
    victory achieved for the folks of Biafra.” He mentioned, “MASSOB is drawing the eye
    to our respectable and peaceful upcoming occasions of commemoration of the fallen Biafran heroes and heroines and celebration of fifty years anniversary of Biafra
    independence declaration by Basic Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu on Could thirtieth,

    “MASSOB is hereby encouraging the folks of Biafra to not be intimidated or discouraged by the antics of exterior and inner blackmailers or overzealous Nigerian safety brokers however proceed to arrange and mobilize to observe our proposed commemoration of the fallen Biafran Heroes and Heroines and celebration of fifty years anniversary of Biafra declaration as scheduled on Might 30, 2017 in our traditional peaceful and non-violence method, devoid of intimidation or compulsion in keeping with the guiding precept of our organisations.”

    Earlier, the group had known as on the United Nations (UN) to step up
    motion by granting freedom to Biafra with a view to cease what it described as “unending killings and brutal therapy already meted out to folks of the defunct japanese area by Nigerian authorities.” Okigwe zonal leaders
    of MASSOB and Biafra Independence Motion (BIM) made
    the decision in an announcement jointly issued to mark
    the 50th anniversary of Biafra and MASSOB’s 18th anniversary.

    The assertion by Chief Samuel Ogubuike (Zonal Chief Okigwe), Ezeugo Kingsley (Elders Council, Okigwe), and Rev.
    Linus Iweanya (Elders Council, Okigwe) was distributed to journalists in Owerri.

    It reads partly: “Beside the over two million folks that had been killed within the genocide that happened through the Nigeria/Biafran civil struggle, 1000’s of professional-Biafra agitators have been killed in Nigeria.

    “More than 500 professional-Biafra agitators have been massacred on March 29, 2003 in Okigwe whereas tons of have been gruesomely murdered in varied components of Nigeria due to their stand that Biafra
    have to be unbiased.

    “MASSOB and BIM have been taking good care of the households of these folks killed in Okigwe and ex-Biafran troopers who sustained accidents in the course of the civil struggle with none compensation from authorities.

    “It is all these unfair therapies to Biafrans that’s fuelling the infinite agitation for freedom
    and we’re calling on worldwide organisations, particularly the
    United Nations to hasten up the technique of Biafra independence.”

    How the anniversary will hold

    Group leaders who confirmed public bulletins to date made within the villages and city union conferences by professional- Biafran teams informed The Nation in nearly all of the Igbo talking states visited that the agitators have put every part in place to observe the Might 30 anniversary. Confirming this, IPOB spokesman, Highly effective, mentioned: “We
    all are conscious that IPOB, beneath the management of Nnamdi Kanu doesn’t say one
    thing and renege, subsequently, we should remember and honour our fallen heroes and heroines who died for us to stay.

    “Biafra liberation motion is a divine mission which no man, born of a lady, can cease until God Almighty (Chukwu Okike Abiama) says so.”

    He additionally gave an perception into how they deliberate to carry the remembrance anniversary.
    “This Might 30, remembrance day and sit-at-residence order will function a discover to the world, Nigerians, federal authorities and safety companies, that this set of Biafra era below the banner of IPOB, led by Kanu, means enterprise. They’re a distinct set of people that can not relent within the pursuit for the liberation of our pricey nation, Biafra.

    “In line with this, we anticipate each Biafra citizen, each dwelling and abroad to
    endeavour to honour our troopers who died on battle subject,
    youngsters who had been starved to demise and
    different foreigners who laid their lives throughout the genocidal struggle and killings towards the
    individuals of Biafra between 1967 and 1970. We should
    remember and honour them, no going again.

    “With this, each IPOB member in Biafraland should journey to his or her native group to enlighten the folks in our villages to observe the sit-at-residence order issued by IPOB and our supreme chief, Kanu. Additionally, these in Diaspora should inform their folks in Biafra land to sit down-at- house on that fateful day to keep away from regrets.

    “However, Biafrans and IPOB members exterior Biafra land, each these in Diaspora should
    take to the streets within the nation of their respective residents in honour and remembrance of Biafrans that died throughout the conflict of genocide between 1967
    and 1970. They should additionally let the governments of the international locations of their respective
    residents to concentrate on our plight in Nigeria since
    1945 until date.”

    Between worry of saboteurs and follower-ship

    Biafran agitation chief, Nnamdi Kanu, has, in one of many statements he made quickly after his launch, given a trace of the challenges the Biafran agitation teams are at the moment dealing with when he stated many politicians are afraid of figuring out with the trigger “because they
    assume we’re after their place which has made them to permit the established order to stay
    on the detriment of our individuals.

    “We aren’t after any politician’s place and won’t ever be. All we would like is to make sure that issues are accomplished the fitting manner in order that our individuals might be free from modern-day slavery,” he stated.

    As was the case throughout the bloody Nigerian/Biafran civil battle, there may be a lot
    discuss saboteurs and betrayal by some political leaders.
    This has helped to construct up tension as everyone seems to
    be being suspected or not less than carefully watched.
    This however, The Nation noticed that the professional- Biafran teams nonetheless
    get pleasure from large help, particularly within the business cities of
    Aba and Onitsha and locations like Owerri, Okigwe, Umuahia and
    many of the college towns within the area the place we have now
    giant focus of youths.

    Evangelist Elliot Ugochukwu-Uko, the founding father of Igbo Youth Motion (IYM), Secretary of Jap Consultative Meeting
    (ECA) and Deputy Secretary, Igbo Leaders of Thought (ILT), defined to The Nation who the Biafran agitation teams are
    nonetheless having fun with excessive follower-ship despite threats from
    the federal government and efforts of some leaders to redirect the main target of the agitation.
    “Your query is begging the problem, the explanations are apparent,” he mentioned,
    in response to a query on why Kanu, the chief of IPOB has managed to draw
    a lot help from each the youths and a few influential Igbo leaders.
    “Our persons are behind him just because, he has confirmed devoted, devoted and dedicated to freeing our individuals from the prison referred to as Nigeria. He has additionally confirmed that he will willingly make painful sacrifices for the sake of our folks.

    “You see, Nnamdi Kanu just isn’t the issue of Nigeria, moderately
    the issues of Nigeria threw up Kanu. The issues are those
    that imagine they’re born to rule and dominate others perpetually.
    He and his followers are merely reacting to the wickedness
    of the system.

    “On your query in regards to the Might thirtieth occasion, I guarantee you that our persons are one hundred% behind Nnamdi Kanu and the IPOB. They’ve known as on our folks to remain at residence on that day and meditate on the blood of our brethren unnecessarily shed in our current historical past. I’ll guarantee you that regardless of the try by enemies of the folks to sabotage the keep at dwelling order, I consider our folks will comply as a result of they know that Kanu and IPOB imply effectively for our unborn youngsters.”

    All through the 50 years wrestle for the realisation of Biafra, the problems
    with follower-ship and betrayal have performed a serious function. Since Chief Ralph Uwazuruike based MASSOB manner again in 1999, there has remained division amongst Ndigbo as for the potential of realising the mission not
    like the close to-overwhelming assist, 50 years in the past, which the then army governor
    of the East, Ojukwu loved when he made the
    declaration. The difficulty of betrayal or saboteur was, in response to Biafran insiders, one among the
    key challenges of the republic in the course of the conflict.
    By 1999, when Uwazuruike got here up with MASSOB, many Igbo leaders dismissed him as a joker.

    However many youths, particularly those that by no means witnessed the bloody conflict, embraced the motion. Because the motion grew, spreading its tentacles in all areas of
    Igbo land, together with Igbo talking communities within the South-South and all around the world the place giant variety of Igbo dwell, the federal government and Igbo elite started to take it

    Frightened by the event, the then Chief Olusegun Obasanjo-led civilian administration started
    a clampdown on the group and its chief, Uwazuruike.

    Many occasions, Uwazuruike and his supporters had been severally
    arrested, charged for unlawful gathering and later launched.
    He was as soon as arrested in Lome, Togo, for showing on the 36th Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Summit, which had in attendance a number of
    African leaders.

    In 2005, the MASSOB founder was arrested in his Okwe hometown by safety
    brokers and flown to Abuja, the place he was remanded in Division of State Companies (DSS) underground cell.

    As was repeated throughout the latest arrest and detention of Kanu the chief of IPOB all efforts
    to safe an unconditional launch for Uwazuruike then failed.
    He due to this fact spent nearly three years in prison with
    out trial till October 26, 2007, when he was granted three-month conditional bail by Justice
    Binta Murtala Nyako to allow him go and bury his late mom.
    Different circumstances hooked up to the bail had been that Uwazuruike
    would return to the prison and that he ought to recurrently report back to the closest police station in addition to make sure that peace
    reign throughout the three-month interval.

    Standing as sureties for Uwazuruike then have been two serving senators from the
    South-East – Uche Chukwumerije now late and Ikechukwu Obiora and two conventional rulers,
    Eze Christian Uchechukwu Nwachukwu (Eze Ndigbo Lagos) and Eze Nwosu Ibe (Eze Ndigbo
    of Abuja).

    This situation was virtually replicated with the arrest and
    detention of IPOB chief, Kanu, who was arrested and hauled behind bars for nearly two years earlier than he was granted bail underneath very stringent circumstances.

    Apart from the worry that IPOB actions and Kanu’s enthusiasm might wane as was the case with
    MASSOB below Uwazuruike’s management (earlier than the
    emergence of the extra radical Uchenna Madu-led MASSOB), some Kanu’s
    followers, who spoke in Owerri, Imo State, expressed fear over
    the destiny of the three professional-Biafra agitators – Chidiebere Onwudiwe,
    Benjamin Madubugwu and David Nwawuisi- who’re dealing with trial with him however have
    been denied bail by Justice Binta Nyako.

    They’re additionally wandering if the stringent bail circumstances given to
    Kanu would diminish the Biafra battle?

    The place Igbo elite stand

    Not like earlier than, when Igbo elite have been accused of not taking any public place on the
    Biafran agitation by the youths, most Igbo leaders are popping out to say
    what they consider the basis trigger of the agitation and learn how to resolve it.
    Earlier, some energetic Igbo leaders had informed the media
    what they really feel about the event. Chief Chekwas Okorie, the founding father of UPP, for instance had
    stated: “The Biafra battle will not be a violent one, however makes an attempt to keep away from being violent typically result in unavoidable violence. The Biafra battle is now not concerning the Igbo. It’s now a nationwide query. It has proven that the nation wants pressing restructuring for straightforward improvement and co-habitation.”

    First civilian governor of Enugu State and former Nationwide
    Chairman of Peoples Democratic Occasion (PDP) Dr. Okwesileze
    Nwodo, had additionally taken a place on the matter.
    In accordance with him, “As far as Igbo are being marginalised and pushed to the wall, they might push for Biafra independence. The agitation is not going to fizzle out, except the federal government does the needful by giving them their place and justifiable share of the country’s patrimony. What is occurring to Igbo is unacceptable and inhuman,”
    he mentioned.

    Different leaders, whose positions are already on file,
    embrace the previous President, Ohanaeze Ndigbo, Dr.
    Dozie Ikedife, who stated, “It is concerning the push for restructuring of the nation for truthful illustration, fairness and justice. It’s about quest for self-willpower that has not been achieved. So, there is no such thing as a approach Kanu’s launch might be an finish to the battle. It can’t be. I don’t know who might be on the forefront of the battle now, however there are many individuals speaking about it and they won’t cease till the independence is achieved.”

    Such positions however, some observers mentioned since Kanu’s launch
    all haven’t been the identical with IPOB. Such concern was
    heightened lately when stories mentioned Kanu abruptly effected a re-organisation with the management of IPOB just a few weeks in the past.
    However as Chief Uzoma Uba mentioned, the apprehension over
    the reported re-organisation in IPOB doesn’t measure
    as much as the current unity amongst the varied professional-Biafran teams over the
    Might 30 anniversary. Is that this the start of a brand new section in professional-
    Biafran quest? Time will inform.

    Recognized Igbo teams should not unnoticed. Of their reactions to Obasanjo’s suggestion throughout
    the week, Japanese Consultative Meeting, (ECA), Igbo Youth Motion (IYM) and Igbo Girls Meeting (IWA), didn’t cover their stand over the Biafran agitation.

    In an announcement by its Publicity Secretary, Rev. Father John Odey, on Friday,
    Jap Consultative Meeting dismissed Obasanjo’s assertion as “medicine after dying.” Based on the group, “courting Ndi Igbo like ladies with out restructuring Nigeria will obtain nothing; begging them to come back again, that there’s sufficient cake for everyone is unhelpful. The answer is instant restructuring of Nigeria into six areas with out additional delay. Obasanjo is aware of that, he selected to dance round the problems, intentionally avoiding the reality.”

    Igbo Youth Motion, in its response to Obasanjo nevertheless mentioned: “Obasanjo has clearly repented and might be remorseful of his early place in calling the a lot abused, lengthy suffering and oppressed youths of Japanese Nigeria miscreants and fraudsters. We must always forgive him and plead with him to recommendation Buhari his good pal to do the needful and return Nigeria to six areas with out delay.” The
    assertion by IYM founder, Ugochukwu-Uko, nonetheless added, “The window to avoid wasting Nigeria is quick closing, quickly even restructuring will not be acceptable to the tens of millions of offended youths of Japanese Nigeria. His plea for negotiations is late within the day. Solely speedy restructuring can save Nigeria now.”

    For Igbo Girls Meeting (IWA), “Obasanjo is a joker, he is aware of the proper factor, which is speedy restructuring; he doesn’t need to say it. A launch by the chief of IWA, Chief (Mrs.) Maria Okwor, added, “Nothing can save
    Nigeria now besides instant return to six areas and a brand new structure.
    Obasanjo is a part of the issue. Massaging us like ladies or begging us
    not to depart Nigeria is not going to remedy the issue.
    The delay to restructure again to the areas is harmful.”

    However such express positions by Igbo leaders and teams, coupled with the professional-Biafran agitators’ open resolve to step up the agitation, some observers mentioned since Kanu’s launch all could not have been the identical with IPOB. Such concern was heightened lately when some experiences stated Kanu abruptly affected some types of re-organisations with the management of IPOB just a few weeks in the past.

    However as Chief Uzoma Uba advised The Nation, “the apprehension over the reported re-organisation in IPOB doesn’t
    measure as much as the latest unity amongst the varied professional-Biafran teams over the Could 30 anniversary.” Added to the noticed cooperation, we additionally noticed that Kanu, who has been visiting key Igbo leaders; together with former Vice President Alex Ekwueme, now benefit from the sort of acceptance amongst the excessive and the mighty in Igbo land that has by no means been loved by any professional-Biafran chief after Dim Odumegwu Ojukwu. For instance, the place Kanu resides now in Umuahia, very near Ojukwu bunker, the final headquarters of the defunct Republic of Biafra, The Nation noticed that the Biafran sentiment has turn into electrifying. To a big extent, the identical sentiment was noticed within the nation houses of Uwazuruike and Madu. Added to the unending sensitizations in business cities of Aba and Onitsha, solely armchair critics residing far away from these communities will dismiss the present agitation with a wave of the hand.

    So the query within the minds of many is whether or not that is the start of a brand new section in professional- Biafran quest or whether or not authorities safety businesses will simply cease the agitators? The result of the Could 30, 2017 anniversaries will give a trace of what the longer term agitation will seem like.

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